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Biologická fyzika

Course: Biological Physics

Department/Abbreviation: KEF/BFY

Year: 2021 2022

Guarantee: 'doc. RNDr. Roman Kubínek, CSc.'

Annotation: Předmět je určen pro studenty, kteří mají získat či zopakovat základní pojmy spojené s aplikacemi fyziky v biologie či lékařských vědách. Budou-li se zabývat aplikacemi nanočástic ve zobrazovacích metodách či cílené terapii, je třeba, aby se orientovali právě v pojmech na úrovni struktury buňky i ve zobrazovacích metodách.

Course review:
Natural and artificial radioactivity, characterization of ionizing radiation. Types of radioactive decay. The interaction of ionizing radiation with matter. Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Protection against ionizing radiation. Detection of ionizing radiation . The use of ionizing radiation in the treatment and diagnosis. Optical radiation. Properties radiation. Sources and detectors of optical radiation. Optical methods and instrumentation. Visible light. The theory of color vision. Adaptation to light and darkness. Eye and vision defects. Ultraviolet and infrared radiation. The use of thermal energy in medicine. Biophysics thermoregulation. Biophysics of cells. The electric current. Electrical properties of tissues and organs. Conducting of the electrical current in tissues. Bias membrane potential, action potential Bioelectric manifestations and use of action potentials in the diagnosis . Electrodiagnostic methods (ECG , EEG , EMG ?) Acoustics. Basic concepts. Physiological acoustics. The hearing system. Audiometry. Effects of noise on the organism. Infrasound. Ultrasound. Generating ultrasound. The biological effects of ultrasound. Diagnostic ultrasound use. Therapeutic use of ultrasound. Introduction to Nuclear Medicine. Definition field. Radiopharmaceuticals. Radionuclide diagnostic methods. Detection techniques in nuclear medicine. Principle scintillation detector. Devices for personal protection and dosimetry. The possibility of using gamma camera, PET , SPECT . Introduction to Radiology. X-rays, braking and characteristic X-rays. Detection of X-ray contrast agents. CT, NMR.