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Course: Photonics and its applications

Department/Abbreviation: SLO/SZZFX

Year: 2021

Guarantee: 'prof. RNDr. Ondřej Haderka, Ph.D.', 'prof. RNDr. Miroslav Hrabovský, DrSc.', 'prof. RNDr. Jan Peřina, Ph.D.'

Annotation: Final exam for verification and evaluation of the level of knowledge.

Course review:
" Optical constants, description of interaction of light with matter, Maxwell equations, Classification of materials according to optical parameters. Relations between optical quantities, refractive index, permittivity, conductivity, susceptibility, matter relations, Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations. " Anisotropy, tensor quantities. Propagation of light in anisotropic media, linear and circular anisotropy, solutions of standard problems, uniaxial and biaxial materials. Linear and circular dichroism, stress-induced or modified anisotropy (electric field, magnetic field, stress). " Interband optical transitions, Fermi Golden Rule. Absortion bands, description of absortion band, critical points, contribution of the photon, experimental absorption bands, influence of exciton. Grating reflection, models of description, description of interaction of light with a matter in particular spectral regions. " Laser and laser diodes, principles and regimes of operation, laser in continuous regime, Q-switching, synchronization of modes, ultrashort impulses, measurements of power and energy, diagnostics of ultrashort impulses, basics of spectrometry. " Electrooptical and acoustooptical phenomena. Linear (Pockels) phenomenon and quadratic (Kerr) phenomenon. Bragg law of diffraction, regimes of diffraction, diffraction orders, efficiency of the element. Amplitude and phase modulation of light, spatial modulation, diagnostics and shaping of ultrashort optical impulses. " Special sources of photons for nanophotonics, attenuated laser impulses, sources of correlated photons, sources of photons with heralding, molecular sources, defects in nanocrystals, quantum wells and quantum dots, atoms or ions in traps, comparison of single-photon sources. " Imaging of nanoobjects, confocal microscopy, near-field microscopy. " Optical speckle metrology. Speckle photography. Speckle correlation method. Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry. Techniques of correlograms and interferograms analysis. " Optical measuring methids in experimental practise. Photoelasticimetry. Stereophotogrammetry. Digital Image Correlation. Contemporary methods of flow visualization of liquid and gaseous media. " Quantum nonlinear effects as sources of nonclassical light. Description of nonlinear processes based on effective Hamitonians. Heisenberg equations and their operator solutions. Description of statistical properties of the quantized fields. Nonclassical effects in optical fields, their identification and quantification. " Second-order nonlinear effects: Second harmonic and sub-armonic generation, frequency up- and down-conversion, parametric amplification, parametric oscillations in resonators. " Third-order nonlinear effects: Kerr effect, self-focusing, generation of solitons. Four-wave mixing and back-scattering, phase conjugation. " Modern photonic structures for amplification and modulation of nonlinear interactions (waveguides, thin layers, photonic crystals), Quasi-phase-matching of nonlinear interactions. Quantum description of generation of photon pairs in the process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion, properties of entangled photon pairs. " Entangled states, Measures of entanglement, Bell inequality. Preparation of quantum states. Quantum computers - fundamental concepts, quantum circuits, quantum annealing. Quantum Fourier transformation, Shor's algorithm. Quantum searching algorithms. " Physical implementation of quantum computers. Quantum communication - Quantum teleportation, Quantum cloning. Quantum cryptology. Quantum noise and information, Decoherence.