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Course: Physics

Department/Abbreviation: SLO/SZZF

Year: 2020

Guarantee: 'prof. RNDr. Jan Peřina, Ph.D.'

Annotation: Final exam for verification and evaluation of the level of knowledge.

Course review:
MECHANICS - Kinematics of a point of mass - Dynamics of a point of mass, Newton's laws of motion - Mechanics of a system of mass points - Mechanics of a rigid body - Gravitational field,Kepler's laws - Mechanics of liquids, Archimedes law, Bernoulli equation - Vibrations and waves,Huygens principle, the Doppler effect - Acoustics MOLECULAR PHYSICS AND THERMODYNAMICS - Particle structure of the substance, statistical view of substance, Brownian motion - Description of a thermodynamic system: state of the system, the equilibrium state, the equilibrium process, internal energy, heat and temperature, ideal gas - Basic laws of thermodynamics, work and heat, entropy, thermodynamic potentials, temperature, irreversible processes, the principle of entropy increase - Molecular kinetic theory of gases, Maxwell's distribution law of velocities - Transport phenomena of heat conduction, convection, diffusion, the First and the Second Fick law - Phase transitions, Clausius-Clapeyron equation - Real gases: van der Waals equation, the critical point, Joule-Thomson effect - Thermodynamic properties of liquids ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM - Electrostatic fields in vacuum, Coulomb's law, Gauss electrostatic theorem, induction, capacity - Electrostatic field in dielectric matter, polarization of a dielectric matter, susceptibility and permittivity - Stationary electric field, electric current, Ohm law, Kirchhoff laws, superconductivity - Stationary magnetic field, Biot-Savart-Laplace law, Lorentz force, the motion of charged particles in a magnetic field, Ampere law - Magnetic field in matter medium, magnetic polarization - Non-stationary electromagnetic fields, Faraday law, transient phenomena in RL and RC circuits, alternating current - Basic characteristics of alternating current and voltage, serial and parallel RLC circuit - Electrical machines - transformers, generators and electromotors. - Electromagnetic oscillations and waves, damped and undamped oscillations, dipoles and antennas, Maxwell equations OPTICS - Ray optics, Fermat's principle, the laws of reflection and refraction, imaging, prism, plane-parallel plate - Paraxial optical systems, imaging equation, the cardinal points and planes of the optical system, focal length, magnification, a system of thin lenses - Basic characteristics of the optical system, reduction of beams of rays in an optical system, pupil, iris, angle of view - Optical system abberations, spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism and field curvature, distortion, chromatic aberration, stigmatic view - Optical systems of basic optical devices, magnifying glass, microscope, telescope - Photometry, photometric quantities and their measurement. - Wave optics,Maxwell's electromagnetic theory,Fresnel relations, reflectance and transmittance of interface -Diffraction,Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction, the resolution of optical systems Interference of light, coherence of light, interferometry, holography Optical phenomena in an anisotropic medium, uniaxial and biaxial crystals, birefringence, optical activity QUANTUM MECHANICS The basic postulates of quantum mechanics, wave functions, operators measurable quantities Schrodinger equation and its general solution, stationary solutions Uncertainty relations Potential well Simple scattering theory Particle tunneling through a barrier The harmonic oscillator Classical limit of quantum mechanics, the WKB method. The particles in a homogenous electric field The particle motion in the central field, hydrogen atom Spin, particle in a magnetic field, the Pauli equation QUANTUM INFORMATICS Entangled states, measures of entanglement, Bell's inequality Preparation of entangled states Quantum computers, quantum gates, quantum circuits and their physical implementation Quantum Fourier transform, Shor's algorithm Quantum search algorithms Quantum communication, quantum teleportation, quantum clonning Quantum cryptology Quantum noise and information, decoherence, quantum error-correction