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Course: Astronomy and Astrophysics

Department/Abbreviation: SLO/SZZAS

Year: 2020

Guarantee: 'prof. RNDr. Miroslav Hrabovský, DrSc.'

Annotation: Compulsory-elective final exam to receive specialization of Astronomy and Astrophysics.

Course review:
1. Dimensions in universe, observable objects, observational tools and methods. Coordinate systems. Time measurement. Calendars. Catalogues and maps. 2. Sky mechanics, Kepler Principle, Orbital elements, Multi celestial body systems. 3. Origin and development of the stars. Internal structure. Protostars. Binary stars and multiple star systems. Variable stars. Final stadium of stars development - compact stars, novas, supernovas, black holes. HR-diagram. 4. Interstellar mass. Open and spherical star clusters. 5. Galaxy, galactic structures, dynamics of galaxies. Our galaxy. The Sun position in our galaxy, stars movements and their velocities. 6. Cosmology. Models of Universe. 7. Solar system bodies. The Sun, planets, dwarf planets, small bodies of the solar system, view from the Earth, structure of solar system. 8. Origin and development of the solar system. Chemical composition. Observing of other planetary systems theory of the star clouds, origin of each body in the solar system. 9. The Sun - structure, thermonuclear reaction, Magnetic field display, observation of photosphere, chromo sphere and corona, sun wind. 10. Lens telescopes. Achromatic, Apo chromatic, ED- optics. Correction of the chromatic aberration. Correction of field distortion. Reducers and correctors. Focal prolongation. Defects. Advantages and disadvantages. 11. Mirror telescopes. Newtonian telescope. Three and multi mirror systems. Defects. Advantages and disadvantages. 12. Catadioptric optical systems. Maksutov, Cassegrain, Schmidt chamber, Schmidt-Cassegrain, Schmidt-Newton, Ritchey-Chrétien, Dall-Kirkham. Defects. Advantages and disadvantages. 13. Telescope assembling set-up methods. Assemblies' errors. Assembly drive, pointation. 14. Atmosphere influence on astronomical observations. Active optics. Adaptive optics. 15. Radio Astronomy. Radio telescopes. Radio interferometry. 16. Principle of telescopes on short wavelengths, roentgen and gamma detectors. 17. Project Auger and related projects. Detectors of Cerenkov radiation. Extreme high energy particles detection. 18. Telescopes and other instruments on the orbit .HST, Spitzer, GLAST, Chandra, XMM-Newton, COBE aj. 19. Filters in optical astronomy. Photometric filters, photometric systems and its significance. Astronomic spectroscopy. Spectrometers. 20. Detectors for astronomy. CCD detectors. Detectors pro astrometry a photometry.