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Course: Instruments for astronomy

Department/Abbreviation: SLO/PA

Year: 2021

Guarantee: 'prof. RNDr. Ondřej Haderka, Ph.D.'

Annotation: The subject familiarizes students with principles of optical instruments from historical ones to most up-to-date terrestric devices employing adaptive optics.

Course review:
History of astronomical observations, ancient discoveries and observational techniques, astronomy in the middle-ages, first telescopes and spectrometers. - Spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. The sky in different spectral regions. Radiometry and photometry. - Introduction to geometric and wave optics. Paraxial approximation, refracting and reflecting surfaces, Fermat's principle, Huyghens-Fresnel principle, dispersion, diffraction phenomena, imaging systems, magnification, field of view, resolving power, vignetting, f-ratio, aberrations. - Lens telescopes. Achromats, apochromats, ED-optics. Correction of color aberration. Correction of field curvature. Reducers and correctors. Focus lengthening. Aberrations. Advantages and disadvantages. - Mirror telescopes. Newton telescope. Three- and multiple-mirror systems. Aberrations. Advantages and disadvantages. - Catadioptric systems. Maksutov, Cassegrain, Smidt camera, Schmidt-Cassegrain, Schmidt-Newton, Ritchey-Chrétien, Dall-Kirkham. Aberrations. Advantages and disadvantages. - Mounts for astronomical telescopes. Dobson mount, fork mount, german paramactic mount, special systems. - Some big professional systems (e.g. Hale, Keck, VLT etc.) and their future. Active optics. Adaptive optics. - Astronomy in various spectral regions - radioastronomy, X-ray, and gamma astronomy, stellar spectrometry. - Detectors for astrometry and photometry, photometric systems and their significance. - Astroparticle experiments - Pierre Auger Obdervatory, Cherenkov Telescope Array and other important observatories. - Detection of neutrinos and gravitation waves. - Practical demonstrations of various types of astronomical optical systems, basics of mount setting and observation - Stay at the Observatory in Valašské Meziříčí