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Course: Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics

Department/Abbreviation: OPT/TSF

Year: 2021

Guarantee: 'prof. RNDr. Tomáš Opatrný, Dr.'

Annotation: Understanding basic concepts of thermodynamics and statistical physics. Ability to solve physical problems in the field of thermodynamics and statistical physics. Improving the ability to work with contemporary scientific literature in a foreign language.

Course review:
Introduction, fundamentals of thermodynamics: Zero and the first law of thermodynamics, state parameters, the equation of state, thermodynamic equilibrium. Heat, heat capacity. Reversible and irreversible processes, second law of thermodynamics. Entropy, Carnot cycle. Thermodynamic processes with ideal gas. Temperature dependence of heat capacity. The third law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic potentials, free energy, enthalpy, Gibbs potential. Maxwell relations. Joule-Thomson effect. Application of potentials in the study of heat engines and processes. Thermodynamics of phase transitions: condition for equilibrium of phases, Clausius-Clapeyron equation, Gibbs phase rule, classification of phase transitions, phase diagram, van der Waals equation and condensation, surface tension, Laplace pressure. Introduction to statistical physics, phase space, Hilbert space, distriution function, density matrix, Liouville equation. Recalling basic concepts of the probability theory. Statistical ensembles. Microcanonical, Gibbs canonical and grandcanonical distribution, statistics of an open system. Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, equipartition theorem, heat capacities, one- and two-atomic ideal gas. Velocity distribution of ideal gas molecules, spectral linewidth. Quantum description of gas molecules as particles in a potential well, finding thermodynamic quantities from the quantum description of the system. Connection between quantum and statistical physics, distinguishable and nondistinguishable particles, Gibbs paradox. Entropy and its properties, Maxwell demon, connection between thermodynamics and the theory of information. Statistics of spin systems, paramagnetism. Statistics of a system of harmonic oscillators, classical and quantum model. Black body radiation - Planck law, Stefan-Boltzmann law, Wien's displacement law, pressure and entropy of radiation. Heat capacity of crystals: Dulong-Petit law, Einstein model, Debye model. Quantum statistics of ideal gases: Bosons and fermions, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac distribution. Ideal Fermi gas, Fermi energy, electron gas, Richardson-Dushman formula for thermoemission current. Relation between size and mass of a white dwarf. Bose-Einstein condensation, critical temperature. Experimental realization of BEC. Basics of fluctuation theory: fluctuation of energy and particle number, fluctuation of thermodynamic quantities.