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Course: Wave and Ray Optics

Department/Abbreviation: OPT/SZZK2

Year: 2021

Guarantee: 'prof. RNDr. Zdeněk Bouchal, Dr.'

Annotation: Electromagnetic theory of light, phase velocity, refractive index of optical media, dispersion, Huygens principle,

Course review:
1. The physical nature of light. Description of light, research methods of optics. The phase velocity of light in a homogeneous isotropic dielectric, refractive index, dispersion. Dispersion curve, dispersion equations, Abbe number. 2. Assumptions and applications of ray optics. Fermat's principle, the laws of refraction and reflection. Passage of light rays through prism, optical wedge, plane-parallel plate and optical fibers. 3. Optical imaging based on ray optics, paraxial imaging by a spherical surface and system of surfaces. Paraxial properties and parameters of the optical elements and systems, principle points and planes, magnification, trasing of principle rays. Lens equations, thin lens imaging. 4. Aberrations of optical systems and their classification. Spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism and distortion. Chromatic aberrations, basic description of optical aberrations. Curvature of the image - Petzval curvature (Petzval sum). Stigmatic imaging, Abbe and Herschel conditions. 5. Propagation of monochromatic waves in infinite homogeneous isotropic dielectric medium. Basic vectors describing electromagnetic waves, homogeneous wave equation and its solution in the form of monochromatic waves. Monochromatic waves, plane and spherical waves and their properties. Energy transferred by monochromatic wave, the Poynting vector. 6. Passage of electromagnetic waves through interface of two homogeneous isotropic dielectrics. Fresnel equations, reflectance and transmittance of the interface. Total internal reflection and its applications. 7. Polarization of light, basic polarization states, creation of polarized light, polarizing optical elements. Optical activity. 8. Diffraction of light, classification of diffraction phenomena. Influence of diffraction effects on the resolving power of optical systems, Rayleigh criterion. Diffraction gratings and their applications. 9. Interference of light, nature and manifestations of interference. Coherence of light, basic conditions of interference. Two-beam and multiple-beam interference. Basic types of interferometers, classification and applications.