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Course: Mechanics and Molecular Physics

Department/Abbreviation: OPT/SZZA1

Year: 2021

Guarantee: 'prof. RNDr. Zdeněk Hradil, CSc.'

Annotation: Overview of classical mechanics and molecular physics.

Course review:
-Quantities and units in physics, systems of coordinates, classification of physical quantities, International System of Units (SI), theory of errors, measurements of physical quantities -Gravitational and electric static field, Newton and Coulomb laws, intensity, work and potential energy of the static field, potential, field lines, equipotential surfaces, determination of intensity and potential of the electrostatic field in the case of charged desk and sphere, electric field in a matter medium -Kinematics and dynamics of a mass point, basic quantities of mechanical motion, classification of motions inertial and non-inertial referential systems, Newton laws of motion, impulse and momentum, moment, torque and angular momentum, work, energy and power, law of conservation of energy -Motions of particles in gravitational, electrostatic and magnetic field -Solid body, centre of gravity, internal and external forces, translation and rotation of a solid body, moment of inertia, Steiner theorem, solids, tensile strain, compressive strain, shearing strain and torsion strain -Relativistic kinematics and dynamics of a particle, referential systems, inertial and non-inertial systems, Galileo transformation, Einstein postulates, Lorentz transformation and its consequences, Minkowski metrics of spacetime, Einstein equations of energy -Statics and dynamics of fluids, pressure in still fluid, Pascal law, lifting force, Archimedes principle, compressibility of liquids and gases, equation of steady flow of a fluid, Bernoulli equation, viscosity of a fluid, Poisseuille law and Stokes law, surface tension, pressure under curved surface of a liquid, capillary phenomena -Mechanical and electrical oscillations, free and damped oscillations - equations of motion and their solutions, forced harmonic oscillations and their resonance, superposition of harmonic oscillations -Mechanical traveling waves, origin and propagation of mechanical waves in homogeneous isotropic medium, Huygens principle, wave equation and its properties, wave function for harmonic traveling waves with planar and spherical wavefronts, superposition of harmonic traveling waves, group and phase velocity -Electron shell of the atom, basic models of atoms and their electron structure, atomic spectra and their properties, X-ray radiation, Mendeleyev periodic system of elements -Nucleus of the atom, basic parameters and models of atomic nucleus, nuclear forces, meson field, strong and electromagnetic interactions, types of nuclear reactions (mono and binuclear), effective cross-section, energy balance of nuclear processes, natural and artificial radioactivity