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Course: Physiological Optics

Department/Abbreviation: OPT/FO

Year: 2021

Guarantee: 'doc. RNDr. Mgr. František Pluháček, Ph.D.'

Annotation: Brief introduction to geometrical optics, refraction on spherical surface, reduced distance, vergency, definition of optical power,

Course review:
Brief introduction to geometrical optics, refraction on spherical surface, reduced distance, vergency, definition of optical power, Gauss image equation and image equation with vergencies for one spherical surface and for a lens, multistage optical system and determination of its major parameters, basic aberration of optical systems Origin of visual sensation, the eye and its optical system, structure of the eye, its models and their use, aberration of optical system of the eye, overview of refractive defects Emmetropia and ametropia, causes, classification and spectacle correction of spherical ametropia, astigmatism, causes, classification and correction, anisometropia, anisoiconia Accommodation and its description, theory of accommodation, stimuli of accommodation, myopia of blank field, night and instrumental myopia, interval and amplitude of accommodation, changes of accommodation with age, presbyopia, presbiopia supplement to near, aphacia, ablyopia Influence of pupil on optical imaging in the eye, diffraction limitation of the eye, diffraction strip, depth of a field, Stiles-Crawford effect, pupillary reflections Visual sharpness and its measurement, minimum angular resolution and its measurement (angular and vernier resolution), visus - definition, measurement, optotypes - basics of construction, types and use, contrast sensitivity - definition, measurement and use Visual function of the retina, structure of the retina, types of photoreceptors, their distribution on the retina and convergence, adaptation on light, photopic (cone) vision, scotopic vision and mesopic vision Introduction to photometry, basic photometric quantities and units, basic relations between photometric quantities, basic photometric formulae, Bunsen photometer Perception of brightness, adaptation, adaptation on dark, photopic (cone) vision, scotopic vision and mesopic vision, adaptation on light, differential brightness threshold, influence of changes of brightness on contrast, subsequent images, irradiation, dazzle, illumination of working place, influence of distribution of light sources and spectral composition of their light on the eyesight, harm of the eye by radiation and its prevention, entoptical phenomena Colour, its perception and measurement, definition of the colour and its description from the psycho-sensorial, physical and psycho-physical viewpoint, temperature of the colour, equivalent temperature of the colour, mixing of colours (additive and subtractive), natural colour coordinates, three-colour coordinates nased on colour flows, trichromatic CIE system, theory of colour vision, trichromatic Helmholtz theory of colour vision, Hering theory of anti-colours, theory of zones, defects of colour sense Visual field, visual tract, monocular and binocular visual field - properties, measurements and defects, visual tract and its neurons, introduction to physiology of eye movement, basics of binocular vision, relationship of convergence and accommodation, physiology of vision, visual delusions, requirements on optical devices