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Course: Voice, Speech and Hearing Sciences

Department/Abbreviation: KEF/PGSHR

Year: 2021

Guarantee: 'doc. RNDr. Jan Švec, Ph.D.'

Annotation: Overview of the current knowledge in the voice, speech and hearing sciences.

Course review:
- Anatomy and physiology of voice and speech apparatus, respiratory airways and the larynx, cartillaginous skeleton of the larynx, muscles and nerves controlling the vocal folds, vocal fold structure. (Titze [1]). - Anatomy and physiology of breathing (Zemlin [2]). - Acoustics of voice and speech - voice as an acoustic signal, fundamentals of acoustics, vibration and waves, voice production in human vocal apparatus, source-filter theory (Titze [1]). - Production of vowels in human vocal tract, cavities' resonances, acoustic differences in vowels - formants (Titze , Peterson & Barney [1,3]). - Objective and subjective characteristics of sound, hearing field (hearing range profile), basics of psychoacoustics (frequency vs. pitch, sound pressure, sound pressure level, equal loudness curves, loudness level [Phon]) [4-7]. - Hearing: ear anatomy (outer, middle and inner ear), theories of hearing, inner and outer hair cells, air and bone conduction in hearing ([4-10], [11] - chap.6, [12], [13] & Internet). - Methods of ear examination, basics of audiology: hearing tests with pitchforks, audiogram, tympanometry, otoacoustic emissions, Auditory Brainstem Responses (Myers et al. [10] & Internet). - Hearing disorders and their correction, hearing aids. - Acoustic recordings of voice and speech - equipment, types of microphones and their characteristics, requirements on microphone characteristics (frequency response, directionality, proximity effect, dynamic range - noise and clipping), preamplifier and its adjustment for voice recording, analog-to-digital conversion (sampling frequency, bit resolution), types of sounds files (wav, mp3 and orhers), cables and connectors [14-26]. - Basic acoustic characteristics of voice and speech- frequency, volume and spectrum (regularity - perturbation, jitter, shimmer, three types of voice signals from the regularity point of view and their visual recognition, voice energy, voice intensity, intensity level, sound pressure level SPL, influence of mouth-to-microphone distance, influence of room acoustics, SPL calibration for recording) [1,22,27-29]. - Vocal fold vibration. - Voice registers: terminology, self-perception and perception of registers, production of voice registers - 4+1 factors (vocal folds and their vibration, vocal tract, subglottal tract and their feedback on the vocal fold vibration), register transitions, register jumps, theory of nonlinear dynamics, voice bifurcations, chest-falsetto breaks and subharmonic phonation, characteristic chest-falsetto leap interval, normal vibration modes of the vocal folds. [1,22,30-59]. - Human voice range, measurement of the voice range profile (Titze, 2000; Baken & Orlikoff, 2000; Schutte & Seidner, 1983 [1,22,60]). - Acoustic and physiologic methods for voice investigation: registration using a microphone, spectral analysis, electroglottography, pneumography, pneumotachography, laryngoscopy, videokymography, photoglottography, direct and indirect measurement of subglottal pressure (Baken & Orlikoff [22]). - Voice disorders and principles of their treatment, voice hygiene (Titze [1]). - Speech: vowels versus consonants, articulation, acoustic analysis of speech, spectroscopy, ([61]; [62] - chap.1-8). Automatic speech recognition (Makhoul & Schwartz [63]).