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Course: Biomechanics

Department/Abbreviation: KEF/BIOM

Year: 2021

Guarantee: 'doc. RNDr. Jan Švec, Ph.D.'

Annotation: Obtaining basic knowledge in the field of biomechanics with focus on biomechanics of voice and hearing and some information on sports and forensic biomechanics.

Course review:
- Fundaments of biomechanics, segmentation of human body, methods of determining mass and length of body segments, interpretation of possible deviations standard deviation and confidence interval - Centre of gravity (COG) in biomechanics, COG of body segments, methods for determining COG in human body and segments, moments of inertia of human body and segments and methods for their determination. - Human anatomy, basic anatomical position, main planes and axes of human body, directions on limbs and trunk, human skeleton, spine structure and scoliosis - Typical mechanical properties of biological tissues: viscoelasticity, viscoelasticity, non-homogenity, anisotropy, adaptability. Stress-strain relationship (Hooke's law, elasticity modulus, yield point, rupture point). Elastic and plastic deformation - Structure of bones, influence of external environment on bones (Wolff's law), fatigue-caused fractures (stress vs. number of repetitions), stress-strain relationship in bones, bone aging, bone densitometry, osteoporosis, Z-score and T-score in bone densitometry - Tendons and ligaments, elastin and collagen fiber in tendons and ligaments and their deformation, 2 effects as consequences of viscoelasticity stress relaxation and creep - Cartilages, three types of cartilages, their function, structure and properties, stress relaxation and creep in cartilages, discs and menisci and their function - Joints, joint types, synovial joint, synovial fluid, arthritis, different movements in joints: rotation and translation, abduction vs. adduction, flexion vs. extension. - Muscular system in humans, 3 muscle types, muscle redundancy, structure of striated muscle, muscle contraction, motor unit, twitch and tetanus - Types of muscle fibers (motor units), 2 basic mechanisms for increasing muscle tension, combination of spatial and temporal recruitment for increasing muscle tension (Henneman's size principle), basic types of muscle contraction (isometric, anisometric-concentric and excentric, isotonic), Hill's 3-element model of muscle - Neuron: 3 types of neurons and their involvement in a reflex arc, neuron morphology, transmission of nerve action potential to muscle, extrafusal and intrafusal muscle fibers, mechanoreceptors and their feedback function (muscle spindles their structure and function, the Golgi apparatus, other mechanoreceptors), patellar reflex - Anatomy and physical-acoustical scheme of vocal apparatus, vocal tract, laryngeal structure - Laryngeal muscles and their function, laryngeal innervation, cartillaginous and membranous glottis, vocal fold structure, elastic properties of the vocal folds, control of vocal fold vibrational frequency - Voice: types of sound (waveform and spectrum), fundamental period and fundamental frequency, waveform and spectrum of voice: frequencies of the harmonics versus tone height and voice timbre - Source-filter theory of voice production, vocal tract resonances formants, vowels, Hellwag's triangle - Theories of vocal fold vibration, measurement of subglottic and supraglottic pressures in vivo, experiments with excised larynges, mucosal waves, vibration modes of the vocal folds, vocal fold models - Basic acoustic and physiologic methods for examination and analysis of voice: spectral analysis, sound spectrography, voice range profile, electroglottography, photoglottography, pneumotachography, maximum phonation time - Laryngoscopic methods for voice examination, examples of laryngeal pathology, voice care - Hearing, hearing range, Fechner-Weber law, sound intensity level and sound pressure level, hearing threshold, hearing field, equal loudness contours, loudness levels phons - Anatomy and function of hearing apparatus: outer ear, middle ear, inner ear cochlea structure, organ of Corti, inner and outer hair cells - Theories of hearing: place and temporal coding, active mechanism, activity of hair cells, otoacoustic emissions