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Course: Medical Biophysics

Department/Abbreviation: KBF/SZZLB

Year: 2021

Guarantee: 'doc. RNDr. Roman Kubínek, CSc.'


Course review:
1.Biophysics and Cell biopotentials. Structure and properties of biological membranes . Ionic composition of body fluids. Bias membrane potential. Action potential. 2. Biophysics breathing. Volumes and lung capacity. Examination methods respiratory tract. Gas Act and the importance of breathing. The solubility of gases in liquids. Adsorption. 3. Biophysics of bloodstream. The heart as a pump. Cardiac output heart. Blood pressure waveform control. Measurement of blood pressure. Properties of blood and vessels. Viscosity fluids and blood flow. Peripheral resistance of blood. Mechanical work and cardiac output. 4. Biophysics of sensory perception. General principles. Visual analyzer. Color and spatial vision. Vision defects and their correction. 5. Custom biosignals mechanical, thermal and electrical nature. Action potentials heart and brain. The function of the conduction system of heart. ECG, the basic shape of the curve, electrical axis of the heart . 6. Mediated biosignals using ionizing radiation and magnetic fields. Overview of imaging in medicine, basic characteristics - CT , MRI , PET, ultrasound 7.Auditory analyzer. Anatomy of the hearing organ (external , middle and inner ear). The inner and outer hair cells. Air and bone hearings. Biophysics of hearing. Investigations hearing. Hearing defects and their correction. Audiometry . 8. Sound field. The threshold of hearing. Sound intensity and level of intensity. Acoustic pressure. The sound pressure level. The volume level. Periodic and aperiodic sounds, their timing and range. Fundamental frequency and pitch. 9. Making the human voice and speech. Anatomy of voice and speech disorders. Anatomical structure of the larynx. The structure of the vocal cords. Theory sources and filters. The fundamental frequency of voice. The frequency spectrum of the vote. Formants. Creation of vowels in the vocal tract cavities. Acoustic resolution using vowels formants. Consonants. 10.Methods for measuring and testing of voice and speech. Microphones, their frequency and directional characteristics, "proximity" effect. By digitizing sound. Sound spectrography (sonagrafie). Voice box. Elektroglotography. Laryngoscopic methods: laryngoscopy, strobolaryngoskopie, high videolaryngoskopy , videokymography . 11. Biomechanics. Basic anatomical position. The main plane of the human body. Guidelines on the body (the label directions on the legs. Marking lines on the hull). Segmentation of the human body. The focus of the segments. Determination of the center of gravity of the human body. 12. Typical mechanical properties of biological materials: viscoelasticity, inhomogeneity, anisotropy, adaptability . Voltage versus deformation. Elastic and plastic deformation. Modulus of elasticity and tensile strength. Creep and Stress relaxation. 13. The muscular system of man. Muscle redundancy. Transversely - striped muscle - its construction and principle of contraction. Motor units. Twitch and tetanus. Types of muscle fibers (motor units), two basic mechanisms for increasing muscle tension. The combination of spatial and temporal summation for increasing muscle tension (Henneman rule), Hill Infeed model muscle. 14. Neuron: 3 types of neurons and their involvement in the reflex arc. The morphology of neurons. Transmission of impulses from nerve to muscle. Extrafusal and intrafusal muscle fibers. Feedback receptors (muscle spindles - their structure, function and patellar reflex , Golgi bodies).