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## Termodynamika a statistická fyzika Course: Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics

Department/Abbreviation: SLO/TSFN

Year: 2021 2022

Guarantee: 'prof. RNDr. Jan Peřina, Ph.D.'

Annotation: Understand the basic methods in the description of systems in thermodynamics and statistical physics.

Course review:
- The first law of thermodynamics, state parameters, state equations, state of thermodynamic equilibrium - Heat, adiabatic process, reversible and irreversible processes, heat capacity, the second law of thermodynamics, Caratheodor principle, absolute temperature, entropy, Carnot cycle - Thermodynamic potentials, Joule-Thompson phenomenon - Thermodynamics of systems with variable number of particles, chemical potentials, grand-canonical potential, Gibbs-Duhem equation, thermodynamic potentials of dielectrics and magnetics - Thermodynamic potentials of non-equilibrium systems, principle of increase of entropy, conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium, Guldberg-Wage law, Braun-Le Chatelier principle, Gibbs rule of phases - Phase transitions, phase transitions of the first order, Clausius-Clapeyron equations, phase transitions of the second order, Ehrenfest equations, Landau theory of phase transitions of the second order, transition from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism, Curie-Weiss law - The third thermodynamic law - Description of many-particle system, phase space, laws of conservation (Noether theorem), statistical set, Liouville theorem, ergodic problem, Tolman hypothesis, density of quantum states - Micro-canonical, canonical and grand-canonical set, equation of state of canonical system, entropy - Statistical division of the system of free particles, formalism of the second quantization, grand-canonical partition function, distribution laws of ideal gases - Ideal Maxwell-Boltzmann gas, equipartition theorem, specific heats of model physical systems, chemical reaction in gaseous mixture, ideal fermion gas, electron gas in homogeneous magnetic field, diamagnetism, paramagnetism, Curie law - Ideal boson gas, radiation of absolutely black body, Planck law, phonon systems, Einstein model of the crystal, Debye theory of heat capacities - Boltzmann non-ideal gas, virial equation of state, Einstein theory of fluctuations, Onsager relations of reciprocity

## Fyzikální praktikum (elektřina a magnetismus) Course: Practicals in Electricity and Magnetism

Department/Abbreviation: KEF/FP2

Year: 2021 2022

Guarantee: 'Mgr. Milan Vůjtek, Ph.D.'

Annotation: Laboratory tasks in electricity and magnetism.

Course review:
Circuit components in DC electric circuits - behaviour of resistors, capacitors and coils, methods of solving of electrical circuits, resistor bridges Circuit components in AC electric circuits - behaviour of resistors, capacitors and coils, measurements of capacitances, solving of electrical circuits and principle of superposition Nonlinear and controlled electrical components - characteristics of transil, thermistor, diode and light bulbs, contact resistance Basic properties of RLC electrical circuits - voltage on individual circuit components, currents in AC electrical circuits, Work with oscilloscope - basic operations of oscilloscope, characteristics of signals, True RMS values, Lissajous curves and measurement of phase shifts Magnetic circuit and magnetization curves - measurement of hysteresis loops, transformers, power losses in magnetic circuits Thermal dependence of electrical parameters Electromagnetic induction and magnetic field of coils Electrostatics

## Molekulová fyzika a termodynamika Course: Molecular Physics and Thermodynamics

Department/Abbreviation: KEF/MFT

Year: 2021 2022

Guarantee: 'RNDr. Renata Holubová, CSc.'

Annotation: Molecular physics and thermodynamics - a part of the basic course of physics for all physics students.

Course review:

• Basic findings of molecular physics: particle structure of the matter, atoms and molecules, number of moles, molar quantities, particle in a force field of the other particles, Brownian motion
• Thermodynamic system, state of a system equilibrium state, equilibrium process, reversible and irreversible processes, equilibrium state of a gas as a state with maximum probability, internal energy of a system, heat, ideal gas
• Laws of ideal gas
• Molecular kinetic theory of gases, Maxwell Law, analysis of the Maxwell Law.
• Thermodynamics - the laws of thermodynamics, entropy, thermodynamic functions
• Transport phenomena: heat conduction, Fourier equation for heat conduction, heat convection, radiation, diffusion, the First and the Second Fick Law, internal friction
• Phase transitions, Clausius-Clapeyron equation
• Real gases, Joule-Thomson phenomenon, condensation of gases
• Solids: crystalline and amorphous solids, crystal lattice and lattice parameters, energy of a crystal lattice, classification of crystals, crystal defects, thermal properties of solids, thermal linear and volume expansion, molar heat capacity of solids
• Liquids: structure of liquids, diffusion of liquids, osmosis, osmotic pressure, biological importance of osmosis, thermal conductance of liquids, viscosity of liquids
• Properties of liquid surface, surface layer, surface tension, pressure under curved liquid surface, capillarity, liquid compressibility, thermal expansion of liquids, water anomaly
• Thermodynamics and environmental physics

## Fyzikální praktikum (molekulová fyzika) Course: Practicals in Molecular Physics

Department/Abbreviation: KEF/FP3

Year: 2021 2022

Guarantee: 'RNDr. Renata Holubová, CSc.'

Annotation: Laboratory tasks for the physical practicum (molecular physics and thermodynamics).

Course review:
List of laboratory tasks for the physical practicum (molecular physics and thermodynamics) Laws of gases Molar heat capacity Surface tension Calorimetry measurement Heat transmission Heat conduction Viscosity of liquids I. Viscosity of liquids II. + measurement of specific latent heat of fusion of ice-to-water transformation Joule-Thomson law Adiabatic coefficient of gases

## Moderní mikroskopické metody Department/Abbreviation: KEF/MMM

Year: 2021 2022

Guarantee: 'doc. RNDr. Roman Kubínek, CSc.'

Annotation: Overview of used modern microscopic methods - modern light microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy

Course review:
Light microscopy - method of phase contrast, UV and IR microscopy, fluorescent microscopy, polarization microscopy, interference microscopy (Nomarski interference contrastm Hoffman modulation contrast), confocal laser microscopy, optical scanning near-field microscopy Electron microscopy - transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, low-voltage electron microscopy, electron microscopy with high resolution, electron microscopy with optional vacuum (biological application) Scanning probe microscopy - scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, electrostatic force microscopy, lateral force microscopy, scanning capacity microscopy, scanning temperature microscopy, scanning optical near-field microscopy, methods related to the group of methods of scanning probe microscopy

## Fyzikální praktikum (atomistika) Course: Practicals in nuclear physics

Department/Abbreviation: KEF/FP5

Year: 2021 2022

Guarantee: 'doc. Mgr. Vít Procházka, Ph.D.'

Annotation: Laboratory tasks in atomic and nuclear physics.

Course review:
1st week: compulsory safety training List of laboratory tasks for the physical practicum from atomic and nuclear physics: 1. Measurement of spectra of gamma-ray sources 2. Characteristics of Geiger-Müller detector 3. Interaction of gamma-rays with a matter 4. Experimental observation of Mössbauer effect and hyperfine interactions 5. Study of electron-positron annihilation 6. Study of properties of gaseous proportional detector 7. Verification of the statistical character of the conversion law 8. Comparison of efficiency of scintillation and Geiger-Müller detector of gamma-rays 9. SPM 10. Franck-Hertz experiment 11. Balmer series, Rydberger constant 12. NMR

## Elektřina a magnetismus Course: Electricity and Magnetism

Department/Abbreviation: KEF/EMG

Year: 2021 2022

Guarantee: 'doc. RNDr. Roman Kubínek, CSc.'

Annotation: Basic course in electricity and magnetism.

Course review:
Electrostatic field on vacuum - Coulomb Law and its application, principle of superposition, description of electrostatic field, intensity of electric field, potential of electric field, Gauss electrostatic theorem and its applications, potential energy of a charge in electrostatic field, electric potential, calculation of electric potential, electrostatic field of a charged conductor, distribution of a charge on a surface of charged conductor, electrostatic induction, capacity of a single conductor, capacitors, connections of capacitors

• Electrostatic field in a dielectric matter - polarization of a dielectric matter, vector of polarization, dielectric susceptibility and relative permittivity, vector of electric induction, generalized Gauss theorem, vectors of electric field intensity and induction at the interface of two dielectric materials, dielectric materials and their uses, energy of electrostatic field, electrostatic measuring devices
• Steady electric current - types of electric current, magnitude of electric current, density of electric current, equation of continuity and 1st Kirchhoff Law, Ohm Law, resistance of a conductor, connections of conductors, work and power of electric current, dependence of resistance on temperature, superconductivity, nonlinear conductors, circuit with a source of electromotoric voltage, source of electric current, 2nd Kirchhoff Law, solving of electric network, Regulation of electric current and voltage, conduction of electric current in semiconductors, electrolytes, gases and in vacuum
• Stationary magnetic field - basic magnetic phenomena, Biot-Savart-Laplace Law, Lorentz force, calculation of magnetic fields, motion of charged particles in electric and magnetic fields, magnetic induction flow, Ampere Law of overall current, action of magnetic field on a conductor with electric current, electric measuring devices, action of force between two conductors carrying electric current, definition of ampere
• Magnetic field in matter medium - diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials, vector of magnetization and magnetic polarization, magnetic circuit
• Non-stationary electromagnetic field - Faraday Law of electromagnetic induction, mutual induction, intrinsic induction, eddy currents, energy of magnetic field, transient phenomena in RL and RC circuits, origin of alternating electric current
• Basic characteristics of alternating electric current and voltage - bipolar R, L, and C elements in a circuit with alternating electric current, impedance and admittance, work and power of alternating electric current, phasors, serial and parallel RLC circuit, solving of RLC circuits by phasors, symbolic complex method
• Electric machines - transformers, generators and electromotors, three-phase electric current, rotating magnetic field, three-phase electromotors
• Electromagnetic oscillations and waves - damped oscillations in RLC circuit, undamped oscillations (oscillators), forced oscillations in electric circuits, coupled circuits, high-frequency electric currents, circuits with distributed parameters, Lecher line, half-wave dipole, antennas, electromagnetic waves and their properties, propagation of electromagnetic waves, Maxwell equations for non-stationary

• ## Atomová a jaderná fyzika Course: Atomic and Nuclear Physics

Department/Abbreviation: KEF/AJF

Year: 2021 2022

Guarantee: 'prof. RNDr. Miroslav Mašláň, CSc.'

Annotation: Basic course in atomic and nuclear physics.

Course review:
1. Introduction to the physics of the microworld, basic conceptions of the quantum physics 2. Hydrogen atom and its spectrum, atoms with more electrons, Pauli exclusion principle, Hund rules, filling of orbitals 3.Electromagnetic transitions in an atom, probabilities of transition, selection rules, atomic spectroscopy, influence of external field on atomic spectra 4. Molecules, bonds in molecules, molecular spectroscopy 5.Atomic nucleus, protons, neutrons, basic characteristics of atomic nucleus 6.Transformations of atomic nucleus, models of atomic nucleus, nuclear reactions (disintegration and synthesis) 7.Application of nuclear physics - magnetic resonance, Mössbauer effect, neutron diffraction, use of radionuclides, nuclear reactors, possibilities of use of synthesis of nucleus 8.Dosimetry of ionization radiation, prevention against radiation, biological effect of ionization radiation 9.Cosmic radiation 10.Introduction to physics of high energies, elementary particles, trials of their systematization, interactions between them

## Fyzikální praktikum (mechanika) Course: Practicals in Mechanics

Department/Abbreviation: KEF/FP1

Year: 2021 2022

Guarantee: 'Mgr. David Smrčka, Ph.D.'

Annotation: Laboratory tasks for the physical practicum (mechanics, oscillations and waves, acoustics)

Course review:
1st week: compulsory safety training Laboratory tasks of the 1st cycle: 1. Measurement of the moment of inertia 2. Measurement of the shear modulus (static method, dynamic method) 3. Mechanical hysteresis: (a) measurement of the hysteresis loop, (b) determination of elastic modulus of various materials from the torsion of the rods 4. Measurement of the density of the liquids by (a) submersible body and (b) connected vessels 5. Measurement of the density of the solids by (a) direct method, (b) hydrostatic method and (c) pyctometer 2nd cycle: 1.

• Coupled pendulums - measurement on coupled pendulums by SCOPE WIN computer programme
• Measurement of the shear modulus by (a) static method and (b) dynamic method
• Basic acoustic measurements by Kundt tube and cylindrical resonator, examination of musical acoustics by ISES system
Laboratory tasks of the 2nd cycle: 1. Measurement with the 3-axis gyroscope 2. Measurement of gravitational acceleration by reverse pendulum, dependence of oscillation time of physical pendulum on g - Mach pendulum 3.Measurement on mathematical pendulum 4. Balistic pendulum. 5. Measurement on the train set

Návody k úlohám (ZIP 3,3 MiB)

• ## Elektronická měření Info nedostupné/Not available