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Course: General Physics

Department/Abbreviation: OPT/SZZK1

Year: 2020

Guarantee: 'prof. RNDr. Zdeněk Bouchal, Dr.'

Annotation: Fundamentals of mechanics, electricity and magnetism, thermodynamics and quantum physics.

Course review:
1. Mechanics of a system of particles: motion, frame of reference, trajectory, velocity and acceleration, free fall, Newton's laws of motion, impulse, momentum, energy, power, conservation laws. 2. Mechanics of rigid bodies: composing of forces, a pair of forces, moments of forces, condition of equilibrium, simple machines, gravity, moment of inertia, angular momentum and energy of the rotating body, Steiner's theorem, the dynamics of a rigid body. 3. Planets and stars, Kepler's laws, Newton's law of gravitation, intensity of the gravitational field, potential, energy, space, space velocity. 4. Fluid Mechanics: Pascal's law, hydrostatic and barometric pressure, Archimed's law, laminar and turbulent flow, continuity equation, Bernoulli's equation, Venturi effect, the principle of wings, surface phenomena, capillarity. 5. Thermodynamics and molecular physics: heat, temperature, heat capacity, internal energy, work, amount of substance, the ideal gas equation of state, Van der Waals equation, the main law of thermodynamics, Carnot cycle, entropy, phase transitions, phase diagram. 6. Oscilations and waves: an oscillator, equation of harmonics oscilations, amplitude, phase, composition of vibrations, longitudinal and transverse waves, wave equation, displacement, Huygens principle, reflection and refraction of waves, standing wave, interference, diffraction, Doppler effect , acoustics, sound, tone, harmony, intensity and noise level, the hearing system, infrasound and ultrasound. 7. Electric charge, Coulomb's law, intensity of electrostatic field, potential, electrostatic induction, capacitor, capacity, direct and alternating electric current, conductivity, Ohm's law, Kirchhoff's laws, work and power of electric current, the conduction of electricity in metals, electrolytes, semiconductors, gases and a vacuum. 8. Magnets, magnetic field, geomagnetism, paramagnetic, diamagnetic and ferromagnetic materials, electromagnetism, Ampere's law, Lorentz force, motor, speaker, Faraday's Law, generator, dynamo, coil, induction, transformer, oscillatory circuits, Maxwell's equations, electromagnetic waves. 9. Foundations of quantum physics, wave-particle dualism, Schrödinger equation, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, indistinguishable particles, quantization of electron pathways, Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, atoms with more electrons, ionizing radiation, dosimetry, interaction of the elementary particles, conservation laws.