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# SZZJ1

**Course:** Rays, wave and electromagnetic optics

**Department/Abbreviation:** OPT/SZZJ1

**Year:** 2020

**Guarantee:** 'prof. RNDr. Zdeněk Bouchal, Dr.'

**Annotation:** Principles and effects of ray, wave and electromagnetic optics.

**Course review:**

1. Principles of ray optics, laws of reflection and refraction, Fermat's principle. Ray description of light propagation in inhomogeneous medium, the eikonal equation, ray equation.
2. Basic types of inhomogeneous optical media, ray equation in media with spherical and cylindrical symmetry, principle of operation and the use of gradient optical elements.
3. Matrix optics and its application in ray optics, transformation matrix of basic optical elements and systems. Paraxial imaging by gradient lens, ray propagation in gradient fibers.
4. Description of monochromatic plane and spherical waves in unlimited lossless environment. Kirchhoff diffraction theory of light, Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction, Fraunhofer diffraction for basic types of apertures.
5. Description of paraxial monochromatic light waves, basic types of optical beams. Parameters, properties and applications of Gaussian beams. Focusing, collimation and spatial filtering of laser beams, using the matrix formalism in beam optics.
6. Basic concepts and experimental sources of Maxwell's electromagnetic field theory, the basic equations of Maxwell's theory.
7. The general form of the equations of Maxwell's theory of the electromagnetic field and their specification for the nonstationary electromagnetic field in unlimited lossless environment. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in lossless unbounded environment, wave equation and its solution, plane and spherical waves. Polarization and energy of electromagnetic waves.
8. The general form of the equations of Maxwell's theory of the electromagnetic fields and their specification for the nonstationary electromagnetic field in unlimited lossy environments. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in infinite lossy environments. Generalized wave equation, the solution for a monochromatic wave, properties of solutions. Monochromatic wave energy dissipation in an unlimited environment.
9. Aditional Maxwell equations (material equations) for different types of optical media. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in anisotropic dielectric crystals. Classification and properties of anisotropic materials, polarizers and phase plates.
10. The boundary conditions of Maxwell's equations. Electromagnetic waves at the interface of two media, the law of reflection and refraction, Fresnel formulas. Total reflection at the interface of two lossless media. Properties of reflected and refracted waves under total reflection.