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Course: Physiological Optics

Department/Abbreviation: OPT/PGSFY

Year: 2021

Guarantee: 'prof. MUDr. Jiří Řehák, CSc., FEBO'

Annotation: Visual sense

Course review:
-Visual sense -Weber-Fechner's law -Description of a visual organ and auxiliary eye organs -Optical system of the eye -Schematic models of the eye, Gullstrand's eye, standard reduced eye -Principal and nodal points of the eye -Optical axis, visual axis -Ametropic eye -Visual acuity, central visual acuity and its measurement -Age depending progress and changes of visual acuity -Contrast sensitivity of the eye -Axial and refractive ametropia, myopia and hypermetropia -Astigmatism of the eye (regularis, irregularis, rectus, inversus, obliquus, corneal, total) -Influence of eye pupil on the retinal image formation -Depth of field -Spherical aberration -Stiles-Crawford effect -Pupil reflexes (direct and consensual) -Interrelationship of myosis, accommodation and convergence -Accommodation of the eye -Schachar's theory of accommodation -Far and near point of the eye -Range of accommodation -ACA ratio -Presbyopia -Investigation of refractive errors of the eye, objective and subjective methods -Correction of ametropia -Surgical correction of refractive errors -Spectacle lenses and contact lenses correction - comparison of image magnification, visual field and convergence -Aniseikonia, anisometropia, correction of aniseikonia -Correction of presbyopia -Structure of eye retina -Photoreceptors of the eye, rots and cones and their retinal distribution -Convergence of photoreceptors -Space summation -Spectral sensitivity of photoreceptors -Dissociation of rhodopsin by light and stimulation of photoreceptors -Regeneration of rhodopsin -Dark and light adaptation of the eye, adaptation curve -Photopic and scotopic vision -Purkinje shift -Receptive field and function of retinal neurons -Magnocellular and parvocellucar projection system -Bioelectrical activity of retina, electroretinogram -Colour vision -Trichromatic system of CIE -Trichromatic theory of colour vision -Hering's theory of opposite colours -Colour vision disorders and their investigation -Dichromacy, monochromacy -Anomaly trichromacy, disorders of colour sense -Description of visual track (from photoreceptors to cortex) -Projection of retinal image to the brain hemispheres -Visual field and its defects -Central and peripheral visual field -Kinetic and static perimetry -Binocular vision -Coordination of eye movements -Grades of binocular vision, anomaly of binocular vision -Binocular fixation. -Retinal correspondence and anomaly retinal correspondence -Fixation disparity -Horopter -Panum's space and area, single binocular vision -Spatial perception, spatial parallax -Measurement of stereopsis -Diplopia -Heterophoria, its measurement and treatment -Amblyopia and its treatment -Classification of amblyopia -Concomitant and incomitant strabismus -Eye movements -Conjugate and disjunctive movements -Fixation movements -Saccadic movements -Smooth tracking movements -Herign's and Sherington's law -Nystagmus -Optokinetic nystagmus -Diseased nystagmus -REM -Development of the eye and visual functions, ametropisation of the eye, development of binocular vision, empiristic and nativistic theory