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PRKA


Course: Cosmology and Astrophysics

Department/Abbreviation: KEF/PRKA

Year: 2019

Guarantee: 'Mgr. Lukáš Richterek, Ph.D.'

Annotation: The aim is to describe observed properties and structure of the Universe, to give a brief summary of historical cosmological conceptions (the Olbers paradox, the cosmological principle), objects in the Universe (galaxies, types of galaxies, radio sources, observations in infrared and x-ray regions of the spectrum), homogeneity, isotropy and expansion of the Universe.

Course review:
Observed properties and structure of the Universe, brief summary of historical cosmological conceptions, Olbers paradox, cosmological principle, objects in the Universe, galaxies, types of galaxies, radio sources, observations in infrared and x-ray regions of the spectrum, homogeneity, isotropy and expansion of the Universe

  • Fiedmann models of the Universe, basic equations of the relativistic cosmology, types of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models, cosmological red shift, Hubble Law, observation parameters of models (Hubble constant, deceleration parameter, density parameter, cosmological constant) and their measurements, age of the Universe, density of the Universe and problem of dark matter, basic ideas of some alternative cosmologies, anthropic principle
  • Early Universe, physical laws of initial phases of the Universe, recombination and relict microwave radiation, nucleon-synthesis of light elements, unified theory of physical interactions, spontaneous breaking of symmetry and Higgs mechanism, initial singularity, topological defects
  • Problems of standard model, inflation models, quantization of Friedmann universes, models of string cosmology
  • Basics of star astrophysics, radiant power and star magnitudes, span of basic characteristics, H-R diagram, mechanical equilibrium in stars, thermodynamic equilibrium and types of thermonuclear reactions, energy equilibrium and transfer of energy