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Course: Structure, Function of Biomacromolecules

Department/Abbreviation: KBF/STBM

Year: 2019

Guarantee: 'prof. RNDr. Viktor Brabec, DrSc.'

Annotation: Structure and function of nucleic acids, amino acids. Structure and function of other biomolecules. Molecular biophysics of cellular membranes.

Course review:
1. Introduction: Definition of molecular biophysics. Intermolecular forces. Thermodynamics of transitions in biological systems - a brief survey. 2. Structure and function of nucleic acids: Structure of monomeric components of nucleic acids. Primary and secondary structure of DNA. Stability of DNA. Circular DNA. 3. Unusual structures. Nucleases. 4. Structure and properties of chromosome. 5. DNA replication. 6. "RNA world". Types of RNA and structure. Transcription and translation. 7. Catalytic activity of nucleic acids - ribozymes a deoxyribozymes. Molecular evolution and "RNA world". Aptamers. 8. Application of electrochemistry for studies of nucleic acids structure. 9. Structure and function of proteins: Function of proteins. Composition of proteins, structure and properties of amino acids, configuration of peptide bond. Primary, secondary, tertiary structure of proteins, forces stabilizing protein structures, quaternary structure of proteins. 10. DNA binding proteins, their secondary structures. Effect of temperature and pH on protein structure. Chaperons, chaperonins. 11. Methods for studies of protein structures. Determination of sequence, molecular mass and methods for identification of proteins. 12. Application of NMR spectrometry for studies of biomacromolecules. 13. Structure and function of other biopolymers: Saccharides - function of saccharides, types of saccharides. Monosaccharides - structure, conformation, optical activity. Polysaccharides - conformation of glycosidic bond. Glycoproteins. 14. Lipids - composition, relationship between structure and physical properties. Composite lipids, sterols. Biophysical properties of lipids of biological significance. 15. Molecular biophysics of cellular membranes: Structure of membranes. Membrane proteins, structure and function. Passive and active transport, diffusion and osmosis. Na+/K+ pump. Ionic channels. Membrane potential and membrane voltage. Membrane and Donnan equilibrium. Action potential and transmission of excitement on membranes and neurotransmission. 16. Glycobiophysics. 17. Methods of separation of biomacromolecules for structural studies.