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Course: Voice Biomechanics

Department/Abbreviation: KBF/PGSBH

Year: 2020

Guarantee: 'doc. RNDr. Jan Švec, Ph.D.'

Annotation: Overview of the field of biomechanics of human voice production.

Course review:
- Fundamentals of biomechanics [1-3]. - Anatomy of voice organ, laryngeal cartillages, muscles and nerves [4,5]. - Typical mechanical properties of tissues of the voice apparatus: viscoelasticity, non-homogenity, anisotropy, adaptability, stress-strain relationship (Hooke's law, elasticity modulus, yield point, rupture point) [1,2];[5]. - Tendons and ligaments, elastin and collagen fibres in tendons and ligaments, deformation of collagen fibres, consequences of viscoelasticity - 2 effects in tendons and ligaments - stress relaxation and creep [1,2] [5]. - Three types of cartillages, their function, structure and properties, stress relaxation and creep in cartillages [1,2]. - Muscular system of the voice apparatus, types of muscles, their function and properties, muscle contraction, motor unit, twitch and tetanus, types of muscle fibres (motor units), 2 basic mechanisms of increasing muscle tension, combination of spatial and temporal recruitment for increasing muscle tension (Henneman's size principle), Hill's 3-element model, dependence of muscle force on muscle parameters (sarcomere length, muscle elongation, contraction velocity, contraction duration) [1,2]. - Neuron: 3 types of neurons and their involvement in a reflex arc, neuron morphology, transmission of nerve action potential to muscle (neuromuscular junction), extrafusal and intrafusal muscle fibres, mechanoreceptors and their feedback function (muscle spindles - their structure and function, patellar reflex, the Golgi apparatus, other mechanoreceptors), neural system of the voice apparatus. [1,2]. - Anatomical measuremets of the larynx (thyroid, cricoid and arytenoid cartillages, trachea, epiglottis) [6]. - Geometry of glottis and of the vocal folds (vocal fold dimensions, size of tissue structures, casting of glottis, radiographic imaging, matematical model of prephonatory glottis) [6]. - Experiments with excised larynges, attachment procedures, humidification and heating of tissue and air, hemilaryngeal setup, methods of investigation of vocal fold vibration: videostroboscopy, high-speed imaging [6]. - Kinetic and kinematic data on vocal fold vibration: pressure and airflow measurement, vibration amplitude, frequency, mucosal wave and vertical phase difference, radiated power and intensity, contact pressures, vibration asymmetry, resonance properties of the vocal folds and surrounding tissues [6] [7]. - Vocal fold models: Mathematical models - one-mass model (Flanagan & Landgraf [8]), two-mass model (Ishizaka & Flanagan [9]), three-mass model (Story & Titze [10]), mucosal wave model (Titze [11]), translation-rotation model (Liljencrants [12]), aeroelastic model (Horacek [13,14]), finite-element models [15-17]. Physical models [18]. Overview literature: Story [19], Titze [5] - Chap.4, Kob [20]. - Respiratory biomechanics, anatomy and physiology of respiratory muscles, inspiration, expiration, vital capacity, measurement methods [5,21,22] + Hixon [23] - chap.1, Sundberg.