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BIOEN


Course: Bioenergetics

Department/Abbreviation: KBF/BIOEN

Year: 2017

Guarantee: 'prof. RNDr. Petr Ilík, Ph.D.'

Annotation: Redox potential of electron carriers in biological systems. Electron and proton transport in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Reception of light in biology. Contractile systems in biology. Reception of sound. Sensory organs of touch, smell and taste. Termogenesis.

Course review:
Redox potential of electron carriers in biological systems. Introduction of chemical potential. A change of Gibbs energy at chemical reaction. Conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy. Nernst equation. Definition of standard midpoint redox potential. Redox potential of membrane electron carriers. One- and two-electron carriers in biolological systems. Measurement of redox potential. Electron and proton transport in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Oxidative and photosynthetic phosphorylation, Z-scheme of photosynthesis, cyclic and noncyclic electron transport, coupling of electron and proton transport, formation of ATP. Electron transport in mitochondria, complex I - IV, ATP-synthase. Bacterial respiration. Chemiosmotic hypothesis. Reception of light in biology. Eye and retina in vertebrates. Retina, rods and retinal cones. Photoreception pigments. Rhodopsine cycle. Molecular mechanism of photoreception. Eye in nonvertebrates. Photoreception in halobacteria, bacteriorhodopsine. Detection of light by plants. Phytochrome and its role in plants. Contractile systems in biology. Muscle types. Muscle structure, muscle cells. Sarkomer, actin and myosin, troponins and tropomyosin. Energetics of muscle contraction. Hill equation. Cytoskeleton, microtubules, microfilaments, membrane and core cytoskeleton. Reception of sound. Ear - outer, central, inner, physics of their function. Corti organ, inner and outer hair cells, mechanism of making the resonance curve narrower, theory of sound detection, generation of sound by vocal folds. Sensory organs of touch, smell and taste. Main and auxiliary smell system, smell mucous membrane, smell receptors, signal transduction pathway of smell, Mechanoreceptors, fast and slowly adapting receptors. Taste buds, molecular mechanism of taste detection. Termogenesis. Brown adipose tissue, molecular mechanisms of thermogenesis, membrane UCP protein.